About Ethiopia

  • Over the past 15 years, Ethiopia’s economy has been among the fastest-growing in the world (At an average of 9.5 percent per year) (WB)
  • Ethiopia is the 6th largest economy in Africa and 2nd Largest in the east and central Africa. (WB)
  • Despite the COVID–19 pandemic and civil conflict, Ethiopia’s economy grew by 6.3% in 2021, the 3rd highest in sub-Saharan Africa (IMF)
  • Ethiopia’s economy is projected to grey by 5.7% in 2023 (IMF)
  • Ethiopia aims to achieve middle-income status by 2025
  • The government has launched a new 10-year perspective plan, which will run from 2020/21 to 2029/30.
  • 117+ million
  • 2nd largest population in Africa
  • 12th largest in the world
  • 200 million expected to reach by 2050 (UN)

Public and private investment in fishery and aquaculture is low, and the infrastructure inadequate. There is also an urgent need to invest in modern value chain-based fish processing and marketing infrastructure. However, with a large population of some 107 million and fish production potential of some 51 000 tons, ample opportunities abound in the sector. A change in people’s eating habits in favor of Fish can significantly increase the local fish demand. Improvement in fishing techniques, technology transfer to fishers, fishery management personnel training, the attraction of financial capital to the industry, fish value chain improvement, and aquaculture can increase fish production, increased trade, and overall economic development of the country.

In 2001 the volume of fish production was 15,000 metric tons, but that figure increased to over 50,000 metric tons in the latest report. Different studies are also indicating that the local fish demand is now four times more than the current local production.

Ethiopia’s Fish is getting attention from foreign markets because it is organic and uncontaminated. Regional countries like Sudan and Kenya and others from Asia and the Middle East have the plan to import freshwater Fish from Ethiopia.

According to the GTP 2 plans, the country is expected to produce 80,000 metric tons of Fish by the end of 2020 from capture fisheries and 15,000 tonnes from aquaculture, making 95,000 metric tons annual production capacity. Per capita consumption will also double from the current half a kilogram to one kg. Currently, aquaculture development produces about 100 metric tons of Fish per year.

Year Demand (in tonnes)
2003 67 000
2015 95 000
2025 118 000


Source: Zeway Fisheries Resources Research Center

  • Tilapia species
  • Nile Perch (Lates niloticus)
  • Barbus species
  • Bagrus species
  • Clarias species
  • Labeo species
  • Ethiopia is one of the 44 countries in Africa that ratified the Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA)
  • Ethiopia is member of Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
  • Ethiopia has signed Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) with 30 countries and double taxation Avoidance Treaties (DTTs) with12 countries
  • Ethiopia is using the opportunity of Generalized System Preferences (GSP), African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and Everything but Arms (EBA)
  • Increasing demand for fish products
  • An increasing number of dams in the country
  • Availability of suitable land for aquaculture in earthen ponds
  • Lack of commercial fish farms in the country
  • Government plan to improve fish production in its Growth and Transformation Plan
  • Fish production is expected to increase from 59 thousand ton in 2019/2020 to 247 thousand tons by2029. (FDRE PDC)
  • Ethiopia is Africa’s diplomatic capital being a seat for African Union (AU), United Nations Economic Commissions for Africa (UNECA)
  • with its 20+ agencies and the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industries (PACCI)
  • Ethiopia hosts more than 112 diplomatic missions in Addis Ababa

During the past two decades, shifting economic paradigms and conditions for investment and capital flows—globalization—have underlined the importance of African countries’ steps to widen and deepen regional integration. They have, in particular, removed open impediments to capital flows, enabling investors to freely select among alternative destinations on the basis of comparative advantage. In the destination countries, the recent financial crisis and the consequent reduction in official development assistance have also prompted governments to increase their efforts to mobilize private financial resources for public projects, especially for infrastructure.

African countries’ wish to attract external resources provides an incentive for them to tighten eco­nomic links among themselves and to take steps to boost intra-regional financial flows. Economic policies nationally have also enhanced countries’ attractiveness. These moves, coupled with abundant global liquidity, have led to a surge in all types of private capital flows into the continent.

Sub-Saharan Africa is set to enjoy a modest growth uptick, and decisive policies are needed to both reduce vulnerabilities and raise medium-term growth prospects. Average growth in the region is projected to rise from 2.8 percent in 2017 to 3.4 percent in 2018, with growth accelerating in about two-thirds of the countries in the region aided by stronger global growth, higher commodity prices, and improved capital market access.

On current policies, average growth in the region is expected to plateau below 4 percent—barely 1 percent in per capita terms—over the medium term. Turning the current recovery into sustained strong growth consistent with the achievement of the SDGs would require policies to both reduce vulnerabilities and raise medium-term growth prospects. Prudent fiscal policy is needed to rein in public debt, while monetary policy must be geared toward ensuring low inflation. Countries should also strengthen revenue mobilization and continue to advance structural reforms to reduce market distortions, shaping an environment that fosters private investment.

In addition to regional agreements, African countries have signed Business Integration Treaties (BITs) with each other and with developed countries. Many African states have also signed double taxation treaties (DTTs). Over 70 per cent of the treaties are signed with developed coun­tries, particularly in Europe, where the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy have the greatest number.

African countries are signatories to multilateral instru­ments and are members of related bodies that have pro­visions for the treatment of foreign investors. The most important are the WTO, with 44 African members; the In­ternational Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, which provides facilities for conciliation and arbitration of international investment disputes, with 46 African signatories; and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, which provides political risk insurance, techni­cal assistance and dispute mediation facilities, with 50 countries from the continent.

International investment agreements (IIAs)—RIAs and BITs—are also designed to provide comfort to foreign investors, in particular by clarifying security provisions, fairness, protection, transparency and predictability of the policy and regulatory framework that will govern investment activities.

In the investing sphere, African regional agreements follow the basic pattern of international agreements, and include the following items.

Admission and establishment of investment:

  • Fair and equitable treatment
  • MFN and national treatment
  • Protection against expropriation
  • Transfer of funds
  • Performance requirements
  • Investor–state dispute resolution